Vnde enim simile duci potest, potest autem ex omnibus, indidem uerbum unum, quod similitudinem continet, translatum lumen adferet orationi. [12] This ought to seem the more wonderful, as attainments in other sciences are drawn from obscure and hidden springs; but the whole art of speaking lies before us, and is concerned with common usage and the custom and language of all men; so that while in other things that is most excellent which is most remote from the knowledge and understanding of the illiterate, it is in speaking even the greatest of faults to vary from the ordinary kind of language, and the practice sanctioned by universal reason. [14] For when our empire over all nations was established, and after a period of peace had secured tranquillity, there was scarcely a youth ambitious of praise who did not think that he must strive, with all his endeavours, to attain the art of speaking. Or if he has to speak on the civil law, he will consult with you, and will excel you, though eminently wise and learned in it, in speaking on those very points which he shall have learned from yourself. [67] Or if any subject presents itself, requiring him to speak on the nature and vices of men, on desire, on moderation, on continence, on grief, on death, perhaps, if he thinks proper, (though the orator ought to have a knowledge of these things.) Theophrastus quidem Tauriscum quendam dicit actorem auersum solitum esse dicere, qui in agendo contuens aliquid pronuntiaret. �, {13.} [184] Neque uero haec tam acrem curam diligentiamque desiderant, quam est illa poetarum; quos necessitas cogit et ipsi numeri ac modi sic uerba uersu includere, ut nihil sit ne spiritu quidem minimo breuius aut longius, quam necesse est. Theexpression in this word creates the reader appearance to examine and read this book again and anymore. Cicerone, De oratore. [209] His autem de rebus sol me ille admonuit, ut breuior essem, qui ipse iam praecipitans me quoque haec praecipitem paene euoluere coegit. [142] Nunc siue qui uolet, eum philosophum, qui copiam nobis rerum orationisque tradat, per me appellet oratorem licet; siue hunc oratorem, quem ego dico sapientiam iunctam habere eloquentiae, philosophum appellare malet, non impediam; dum modo hoc constet, neque infantiam eius, qui rem norit, sed eam explicare dicendo non queat, neque inscientiam illius, cui res non suppetat, uerba non desint, esse laudandam; quorum si alterum sit optandum, malim equidem indisertam prudentiam quam stultitiam loquacem; [143] sin quaerimus quid unum excellat ex omnibus, docto oratori palma danda est; quem si patiuntur eundem esse philosophum, sublata controuersia est; sin eos diiungent, hoc erunt inferiores, quod in oratore perfecto inest illorum omnis scientia, in philosophorum autem cognitione non continuo inest eloquentia; quae quamuis contemnatur ab eis, necesse est tamen aliquem cumulum illorum artibus adferre uideatur." [70] Qua re, si hac eloquentia atque hoc oratore contenti sumus, qui sciat aut negare oportere, quod arguare, aut, si id non possis, tum ostendere, quod is fecerit, qui insimuletur, aut recte factum aut alterius culpa aut iniuria aut ex lege aut non contra legem aut imprudentia aut necessario, aut non eo nomine usurpandum, quo arguatur, aut non ita agi, ut debuerit ac licuerit; et, si satis esse putatis ea, quae isti scriptores artis docent, discere, quae multo tamen ornatius, quam ab illis dicuntur, et uberius explicauit Antonius - sed, si his contenti estis atque eis etiam, quae dici uoluistis a me, ex ingenti quodam oratorem immensoque campo in exiguum sane gyrum compellitis. Auvray-Assayas C. (2017), « Lectures néoplatoniciennes de Cicéron », in Philosophie in Rom ... Bianchi R. (1986), « Note di Francesco Filelfo al De natura deorum, al De oratore e all Eneide negli appunti di un notaio senese », in Francesco Filelfo nel Quinto centenario della morte (XVII Convegno di Studi Maceratesi, Tolentino, 27-30 septembre 1981), Padoue, Antenore, p. 325-368. 2017/2018. [174] Namque haec duo musici, qui erant quondam idem poetae, machinati ad uoluptatem sunt, uersum atque cantum, ut et uerborum numero et uocum modo delectatione uincerent aurium satietatem. 2,85): questioni te-stuali e stilistiche . [38] But if I should be inclined to adduce examples from our own and other states, I could cite more instances of mischief than of benefit done to public affairs by men of eminent eloquence; but, to omit others, I think, Crassus, that the most eloquent men I ever heard, except you two, ** were the Sempronii, Tiberius and Gaius, whose father {Gracchus}, a prudent and grave man, but by no means eloquent, on several other occasions, but especially when censor, was of the utmost service to the republic; and he, not by any faultless flow of speech, but by a word and a nod, transferred the freedmen into the city tribes; ** and, if he had not done so, we should now have no republic, which we still maintain with difficulty; but his sons, who were eloquent, and qualified for speaking by all the helps of nature and of learning, having found the state in a most flourishing condition, both through the counsels of their father, and the arms of their ancestors, brought their country, by means of their oratory, that most excellent ruler of states as you call it, to the verge of ruin. Non Plato? [69] The part of philosophy, therefore, regarding life and manners, must be thoroughly mastered by the orator; other subjects, even if he has not learned them, he will be able, whenever there is occasion, to adorn by his eloquence, if they are brought before him and made known to him. [139] Quid Critias? Skip to main content. [193] Duo enim aut tres fere sunt extremi seruandi et notandi pedes, si modo non breuiora et praecisa erunt superiora; quos aut chorios aut heroos aut alternos esse oportebit aut in paeane illo posteriore, quem Aristoteles probat, aut ei pari cretico. [36] Cuius est uel maxime insigne illud exemplum, ut ceteras artis omittamus, quod dicebat Isocrates doctor singularis se calcaribus in Ephoro, contra autem in Theopompo frenis uti solere: alterum enim exsultantem uerborum audacia reprimebat alterum cunctantem et quasi uerecundantem incitabat. [135] Quid enim M. Catoni praeter hanc politissimam doctrinam transmarinam atque aduenticiam defuit? Cicerone Marc Tulle Cicéron Marco Tullio Cicerone . Videtisne, genus hoc quod sit Antoni? [17] Vt igitur ante meridiem discesserunt paulumque requierunt, in primis hoc a se Cotta animaduersum esse dicebat, omne illud tempus meridianum Crassum in acerrima atque attentissima cogitatione posuisse seseque, qui uultum eius, cum ei dicendum esset, obtutumque oculorum in cogitando probe nosset atque in maximis causis saepe uidisset, tum dedita opera quiescentibus aliis in eam exedram uenisse, in qua Crassus posito lectulo recubuisset, cumque eum defixum in cogitatione esse sensisset, statim recessisse atque in eo silentio duas horas fere esse consumptas. De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BC. Vero enim oratori, quae sunt in hominum uita, quandoquidem in ea uersatur orator atque ea est ei subiecta materies, omnia quaesita, audita, lecta, disputata, tractata, agitata esse debent. Quid iucundius auribus nostris umquam accidit huius oratione Catuli? Ciuitatibus quidem suis non boni, sed certe docti atque eloquentes, nonne Socraticis erant disputationibus eruditi? [92] But he denied there was any art, except such as lay in things that were known and thoroughly understood, things tending to the same object, and never misleading; but that everything treated by the orators was doubtful and uncertain; as it was uttered by those who did not fully understand it, and was heard by them to whom knowledge was not meant to be communicated, but merely false, or at least obscure notions, intended to live in their minds only for a short time. �, [58] L   "Of the institution of laws, of war, of peace, of alliances, of tributes, of the civil law as relating to various ranks and ages respectively, ** let the Greeks say, if they will, that Lycurgus or Solon (although I think that these should be enrolled in the number of the eloquent) had more knowledge than Hypereides or Demosthenes, men of the highest accomplishments and refinement in oratory; or let our countrymen prefer, in this sort of knowledge, the decemviri who wrote the Twelve Tables, and who must have been wise men, to Servius Galba, and your father-in-law Laelius, who are allowed to have excelled in the glorious art of speaking. [111] Omnis igitur res eandem habet naturam ambigendi, de qua quaeri et disceptari potest, siue in infinitis consultationibus disceptatur siue in eis causis, quae in ciuitate et forensi disceptatione uersantur; neque est ulla, quae non aut ad cognoscendi aut ad agendi uim rationemque referatur; [112] nam aut ipsa cognitio rei scientiaque perquiritur, ut uirtus suamne propter dignitatem an propter fructum aliquem expetatur; aut agendi consilium exquiritur, ut sitne sapienti capessenda res publica. Quid tam dissimile quam ego in dicendo et Antonius? [206] Orationis autem ipsius tamquam armorum est uel ad usum comminatio et quasi petitio uel ad uenustatem ipsam tractatio. cum res distribuitur in partis, ut si quaeratur, quot sint genera rerum expetendarum, ut sintne tria, corporis, animi externarumque rerum, aut, cum, quae forma et quasi naturalis nota cuiusque sit, describitur, ut si quaeratur auari species, seditiosi, gloriosi. Quid ergo? De cuius ui dicendi sic accepimus, ut, cum contra uoluntatem Atheniensium loqueretur pro salute patriae seuerius, tamen id ipsum, quod ille contra popularis homines diceret, populare omnibus et iucundum uideretur; cuius in labris ueteres comici, etiam cum illi male dicerent (quod tum Athenis fieri licebat), leporem habitasse dixerunt tantamque in eodem uim fuisse, ut in eorum mentibus, qui audissent, quasi aculeos quosdam relinqueret. Ellendt.�, (15)   An edict of the praetor forbidding something to be done, in contradistinction to a decree, which ordered something to be done. [10] Iam M. Antoni in eis ipsis rostris, in quibus ille rem publicam constantissime consul defenderat quaeque censor imperatoriis manubiis ornarat, positum caput illud fuit, a quo erant multorum [ciuium] capita seruata; neque uero longe ab eo C. Iuli caput hospitis Etrusci scelere proditum cum L. Iuli fratris capite iacuit, ut ille, qui haec non uidit, et uixisse cum re publica pariter et cum illa simul exstinctus esse uideatur. Et si hoc in his quasi mutis artibus est mirandum et tamen uerum, quanto admirabilius in oratione atque in lingua? ", [126] Hic Catulus "di immortales," inquit "quantam rerum uarietatem, quantam uim, quantam copiam, Crasse, complexus es quantisque ex angustiis oratorem educere ausus es et in maiorum suorum regno conlocare! Quid multa? Quid Alcibiades? Their other treatises, accordingly, they distinguish by the name of the science on which each is written; their treatises on oratory they entitle and designate as books of rhetoric. Nam si res suum nomen et uocabulum proprium non habet, ut pes in naui, ut nexum, quod per libram agitur, ut in uxore diuortium, necessitas cogit, quod non habeas, aliunde sumere; sed in suorum uerborum maxima copia tamen homines aliena multo magis, si sunt ratione translata, delectant.