The city grew rapidly due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, and became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. The film was directed by Neapolitan Gustavo Serena.  Then in 1884, Naples fell victim to a major cholera epidemic, caused largely by the city's poor sewerage infrastructure. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMagnussonGoring1990 (, Hilmar C. Krueger. , Naples is also served by the "Second University" (today named University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli), a modern university which opened in 1989, and which has strong links to the nearby province of Caserta. However, during the 850s, Muhammad I Abu 'l-Abbas led the Arab-Muslim conquest of the city, and managed to sack it and take huge amount of its wealth. In 1458 the Accademia Pontaniana, one of the first academies in Italy, was established in Naples as a free initiative by men of letters, science and literature. Underneath Naples lies a series of caves and structures created by centuries of mining, and the city rests atop a major geothermal zone. In addition to commercial activities, it is home to the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East..  The first music conservatories were established in the city under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, and incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom. Special funding from the Italian government's Fund for the South was provided from 1950 to 1984, helping the Neapolitan economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the Piazza del Plebiscito being renovated. The city's main railway station is Napoli Centrale, which is located in Piazza Garibaldi; other significant stations include the Napoli Campi Flegrei and Napoli Mergellina. A revolution led by the local fisherman Masaniello saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic in 1647, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was reasserted. During World War II, these tunnels were used as air-raid shelters, and there are inscriptions in the walls depicting the suffering endured by the refugees of that era.  Services are also available to destinations further afield, such as Sicily, Sardinia, Ponza and the Aeolian Islands. Porto Of the various public parks in Naples, the most prominent are the Villa Comunale, which was built by the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV in the 1780s; the park was originally a "Royal Garden", reserved for members of the royal family, but open to the public on special holidays. San Lorenzo  Giuliani, who was actually from Apulia but lived and worked in Naples, is widely considered to be one of the greatest guitar players and composers of the 19th century, along with his Catalan contemporary Fernando Sor. Serao was an acclaimed novelist and writer during her day. , Naples is noted for its numerous higher education institutes and research centres. , Naples is traditionally credited as the home of pizza. First settled by Greeks in the first millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. Its province-level municipality is the third-most populous metropolitan city in Italy with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and its metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second-most populous metropolitan area in Italy and the 7th-most populous urban area in the European Union. The port of Naples runs several public ferry, hydrofoil and SWATH catamaran services, linking numerous locations in both the Neapolitan province, including Capri, Ischia and Sorrento, and the Salernitan province, including Salerno, Positano and Amalfi. The following is a list of several festivals that take place in Naples (note: some festivals are not held on an annual basis).  The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commercial standing by establishing relations with the Iberian Peninsula. Serena also starred in the 1912 film Romeo and Juliet. Neapolitan Mouse takes place in the same city. Cannavaro was captain of Italy's national team until 2010, and led the team to victory in the 2006 World Cup. Its construction was begun by the Bonapartist king Joachim Murat and finished by the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV. , During the time of Ferdinand IV, the effects of the French Revolution were felt in Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against the French republicans. Bagnoli The city's best known football club is SSC Napoli, which plays its home games at the Stadio San Paolo in Fuorigrotta. Many writers and playwrights such as Raffaele Viviani wrote comedies and dramas for this genre. The music Opera genre of opera buffa was created in Naples in the 18th century and then spread to Rome and to northern Italy.  Due to this event, environmental contamination and increased health risks are also prevalent. Artists such as Domenico Morelli, Giacomo Di Chirico, Francesco Saverio Altamura, and Gioacchino Toma worked in Naples during this period, and many of their works are now exhibited in the Academy's art collection. 10.  During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal..  Other dishes popular in Naples include Parmigiana di melanzane, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello.   In 1656, an outbreak of bubonic plague killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants. Later Neapolitan was replaced by Spanish during Spanish domination, and then by Italian. 'O Purtale va situato e se cagna appriesso appriesso. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the Papacy led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning the Angevin duke Charles I King of Sicily: Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. Arenella Several episodes of the animated series Tom and Jerry also have references/influences from Naples. 28. , The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Naples, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 77 min.  The climate is a crossover between maritime and continental features, as typical of peninsular Italy.  In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the city's waste management issues.. The cultural significance of Naples is often represented through a series of festivals held in the city. Naples was the location for several early Italian cinema masterpieces.  Naples currently has a higher birth rate than other parts of Italy, with 10.46 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. Naples hosted the 6th World Urban Forum in September 2012 and the 63rd International Astronautical Congress in October 2012.  During the 14th century, the Hungarian Angevin king Louis the Great captured the city several times. , Eventually, the Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army. Napule (pe' taliano Napoli), sovrannummenata capitale d’’o Mediterraneo (comme pùre Catania, Valencia e âte cità), capoluoco d’’a pruvincia omonima e 'a reggione Campania, è na cità 'e circa nu melione 'e abetante e 4.400.000 perzone 'int'â ll'area metropolitana (cuntenente pùre zzone d’’a pruvincia 'e Caserta, Avellino e Salierno , By 1137, the Normans had attained great influence in Italy, controlling previously independent principalities and duchies such as Capua, Benevento, Salerno, Amalfi, Sorrento and Gaeta; it was in this year that Naples, the last independent duchy in the southern part of the peninsula, came under Norman control. Ruggiero Gennaro, I castelli di Napoli, Napoli, Newton & Compton, 1995, second-most populous metropolitan area in Italy, 7th-most populous urban area in the European Union, Istituto Universitario Suor Orsola Benincasa, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ninì Tirabusciò: la donna che inventò la mossa, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy, "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011", "Principali statistiche geografiche sui comuni", "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018", "Napoli, l'inaugurazione dell'Hub di Direzione Strategica della Nato", "Guida Michelin, trionfa Napoli: è la città più stellata d'Italia", "Neapolis Station – Archaeological Yards", "Touring Club of Italy, Naples: The City and Its Famous Bay, Capri, Sorrento, Ischia, and the Amalfi, Milano", "Aragonese Overseas Expansion, 1282–1479", "Ferrante of Naples: the statecraft of a Renaissance prince", "Charles of Bourbon – the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples", "La dolce vita? Neapolitan cuisine emerged as a distinct form in the 18th century. However, during the 850s, Muhammad I Abu 'l-Abbas led the Arab-Muslim conquest of the city, and managed to sack it and take huge amount of its wealth. , Naples was the most-bombed Italian city during World War II.  Below is a selective list of Naples' major churches, chapels, and monastery complexes: Aside from the Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples has two other major public squares: the Piazza Dante and the Piazza dei Martiri. Il brano Napule è aprì le porte a Daniele per il suo debutto televisivo, che avvenne nell'estate 1977 nel Programma Auditorio A, dall' Auditorium Rai di Napoli.  In the sixth century BC the city was refounded as Neápolis (Νεάπολις), eventually becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia. Montecalvario Naples is well known for its historic castles: The most ancient is Castel dell'Ovo ("Egg Castle"), which was built on the tiny islet of Megarides, where the original Cumaean colonists had founded the city. Direct sleeper 'boat train' services operate nightly to cities in Sicily.  It had also been the prison for Empress Constance between 1191 and 1192 after her being captured by Sicilians, and Conradin and Giovanna I of Naples before their executions. 5. Many writers and playwrights such as Raffaele Viviani wrote comedies and dramas for this genre. Though a notable landmark, it is no longer a functioning hospital..  Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, and later resided in its environs. Football is by far the most popular sport in Naples.  By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. Underneath Naples lies a series of caves and structures created by centuries of mining, and the city rests atop a major geothermal zone. Paco Stillo, giovane napoletano diplomato in pianoforte al conservatorio, è molto talentuoso ma disoccupato.  In 1995, the historic centre of Naples was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, a United Nations programme which aims to catalogue and conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of mankind. [better source needed] In 1544, around 7,000 people were taken as slaves by Barbary pirates and brought to the Barbary Coast of North Africa. Occupying a 19th-century palazzo renovated by the Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza, the Museo d'Arte Contemporanea Donnaregina (MADRE) features an enfilade procession of permanent installations by artists such as Francesco Clemente, Richard Serra, and Rebecca Horn. Along its history the castle was the residence of many kings and queens. The rectangular grid layout of the ancient Greek foundation of Neapolis is still discernible and has indeed continued to provide the basic form for the present-day urban fabric of the Historic Centre of Naples, one of the foremost Mediterranean port cities.  Services are also available to destinations further afield, such as Sicily, Sardinia, Ponza and the Aeolian Islands.  Having a great interest in architecture, Charles I imported French architects and workmen and was personally involved in several building projects in the city. , The duchy was under the direct control of the Lombards for a brief period, after the capture by Pandulf IV of the Principality of Capua, a long-term rival of Naples; however, this regime lasted only three years before the Greco-Roman-influenced dukes were reinstated. During the late Baroque period, Alessandro Scarlatti, the father of Domenico Scarlatti, established the Neapolitan school of opera; this was in the form of opera seria, which was a new development for its time. Castel Nuovo has seen many notable historical events: for example, in 1294, Pope Celestine V resigned as pope in a hall of the castle, and following this Pope Boniface VIII was elected pope by the cardinal collegium, before moving to Rome. The economy of the area formerly known as the Two Sicilies declined, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration, with an estimated 4 million people emigrating from the Naples area between 1876 and 1913.  The demographic profile for the Neapolitan province in general is relatively young: 19% are under the age of 14, while 13% are over 65, compared to the national average of 14% and 19%, respectively. , Eventually, the Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army. He had the empress imprisoned at Castel dell'Ovo at Naples before her release on May 1192 under the pressure of Pope Celestine III. , The Carmine Castle, built in 1392 and highly modified in the 16th century by the Spanish, was demolished in 1906 to make room for the Via Marina, although two of the castle's towers remain as a monument. In 1935, the Rationalist architect Luigi Cosenza created a new fish market for the city. The traditional Neapolitan flip coffee pot, known as the cuccuma or cuccumella, was the basis for the invention of the espresso machine, and also inspired the Moka pot. According to different sources, Naples' metropolitan area is either the second-most-populated metropolitan area in Italy after Milan (with 4,434,136 inhabitants according to Svimez Data) or the third (with 3.1 million inhabitants according to the OECD). Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, and many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Naples is Italy's fourth-largest economy after Milan, Rome and Turin, and is the world's 103rd-largest urban economy by purchasing power, with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion, equivalent to $28,749 per capita. In 1458 the Accademia Pontaniana, one of the first academies in Italy, was established in Naples as a free initiative by men of letters, science and literature. , In contrast to many northern Italian cities, there are relatively few foreign immigrants in Naples; 94.3% of the city's inhabitants are Italian nationals. 13. Some notable comedies set in Naples include Ieri, Oggi e Domani (Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow), by Vittorio De Sica, starring Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni, Adelina of Naples (Academy Award-winning movie), It Started in Naples, L'oro di Napoli again by Vittorio De Sica, dramatic movies like Dino Risi's Scent of a Woman, war movies like The Four Days of Naples by Sardinian director Nanni Loy, music and Sceneggiata movies like Zappatore, from the eponymous song by Libero Bovio, starring singer and actor Mario Merola, crime movies like Il Camorrista with Ben Gazzara playing the part of infamous camorra boss Raffaele Cutolo, and historical or costume movies like That Hamilton Woman starring Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier.